Learn to Eat Smart
Eating smart just got a lot easier! Find a wealth of information on ways to incorporate healthy options on the Eat Smart Blog. Know what you're looking for? Try the search term box to look for specific topics that meet your needs.
How to Tell When Produce is Ripe
Ken Immer | 11/18/2016
We can save money and time by using ripeness as a purchasing strategy.
When purchasing produce, the biggest question is often, “When is ______ ripe?”. A better question to ask is, “Should I buy it before it’s ripe or when it’s ripe?” Sometimes buying foods before they are ripe can be a good strategy, as long as you consider when you plan to eat it and how many days it will be stored before use. We end up wasting a lot of food because it ‘turns past its prime’ before we have a chance to eat it. We can save money and time by using ripeness as a purchasing strategy rather than just a countdown clock till you throw produce away.
Here are a few items that can be purchased at varying degrees of ripeness or being ready to eat:
- Ready to eat: When the skin is uniformly dark, and when squeezed gently it gives a bit but is not mushy. The small nub of a stem should still be attached but should come off easily with your finger.
- Timeline: Avocados start off green and very hard, but they do ripen quickly, usually within 3-4 days if purchased green. Once they are ready to eat, they can be refrigerated for 3-4 more days, whole and uncut.
- Storage: Do not refrigerate until ripe! Keep them in a countertop bowl away from sunlight. Storing in a paper bag can accelerate ripening.
- Ready to eat: Most people like to eat a banana when it is uniformly yellow, with minimal dark spots. However, they can be eaten until well spotted, as they get sweeter and softer the longer they sit.
- Timeline: Bananas, like avocados, start off green and very hard, but ripen at different rates depending on a number of factors. On average, a green banana will be ready to eat within 5-7 days. A ‘green tip’ banana which is, as it sounds, just green at the top near the stem, may take 1-2 days to become completely yellow.
- Storage: Bananas will ripen slowly in a refrigerator. However, the skin will darken more quickly than the flesh softens. Again, similar to avocados, they do well on the countertop away from the sun. Bananas are often bunched with a plastic wrapped around the stem ends, which extends their ripening time. Once removed, they ripen much more quickly.
- Ready to eat: Look for green husks that are not dried out with shiny silks. Peel back about 2 inches of the husk and make sure that the kernels are plump and tightly arranged.
- Timeline: Choose corn that is either in a refrigerated section or an especially cool part of the store. Any heat can cause it to rot very quickly. Otherwise, corn will keep 2-3 days after purchase as long as it’s kept in the husk.
- Storage: Store in the refrigerator, but really, corn is best eaten immediately.
- Ready to eat: Choose an eggplant that is firm and heavy for its size. Also look for vivid color and avoid all soft spots or bruises, as this indicates decaying flesh beneath the skin. Any indentation that does not spring back after gentle finger pressure means a past-ripe eggplant.
- Timeline: Eggplants are very perishable and have just 2-3 days after purchase before starting to decay and dry.
- Storage: Store in the refrigerator, and if purchased wrapped in plastic, remove immediately, as it keeps it from breathing and will go bad faster.
- Ready to eat: Mangoes can be purchased green, and are ready to eat when either uniformly yellow or with a red highlight. Some mangoes do retain a little bit of green when they are ripe as well, so you should also give them a little squeeze. Their sweet aroma is the best indicator since the coloring can be deceptive. Also, they should be slightly soft like an avocado, not hard like an apple when ripe.
- Timeline: Depending on the type of mango, it can take anywhere from 3 days to a week for them to fully ripen.
- Storage: Never refrigerate an unripe mango, as with other tropical fruits. However once ripe they can remain in the refrigerator for up to 5 days.
- Melon (cantaloupe/honeydew)
- Ready to eat: Melons are a tricky bunch, as the coloring and firmness are not always reliable indicators. ‘Thumping’ is also not exactly a science. When you pick it up, it should be heavy for its size, and looking at the stem end of the fruit gives more reliable info. The stem end should be brown and not green, and should have a nice aroma. If the aroma is especially strong, however, it’s likely past its prime.
- Timeline: Again, not super reliable, but melons have a fairly long shelf-life, especially if they are picked green (green stem). They can take up to a week from purchase to completely ripen. Because of the challenges, purchasing them only ready to eat is recommended.
- Storage: Unripe melons ripen on the countertop, and stored for only a day or two in the crisper drawer where you have higher humidity
- Ready to eat: Pineapples are officially ready to eat as soon as they are picked, as they do not continue to officially ‘ripen’, but they do begin to soften and become juicier. Choosing a pineapple that is sweet and of good texture is the skill. Plucking a leaf is a good indication; it should come out easily and have a nice sweet aroma
- Timeline: Waiting to eat your pineapple only changes the texture of the fruit. Pineapples are highly perishable and will actually ferment at room temperature in a few days, so watch them closely and use within a day or two after purchase.
- Storage: The best way to store pineapple is to cut and refrigerate. But if you do refrigerate a whole pineapple, wrap it to keep it fresher longer.
- Tomato (not grape tomatoes)
- Ready to eat: Tomatoes are best eaten straight from the vine in your backyard when they are vibrant red (or yellow!), heavy, with a firm skin with just a tiny amount of give. However, store-bought tomatoes are picked green because they are highly perishable and damage easily when ripe. They will, however, turn red after picking, but never truly ‘ripen,’ which is why homegrown tomatoes are completely different from those purchased.
- Timeline: Tomatoes can take anywhere from 2 days to a week to be ready to eat after purchasing, depending on how green or hard they are at purchase. They will spoil very quickly once soft.
- Storage: Tomato texture changes dramatically when refrigerated, so they should always be kept at room temperature unless cut.
Because a lot of produce has ‘stages’ of when they are ready to eat, it really is best to think about when you want to consume them as to when you should buy them, and what stage they should be at when you do purchase them. For items like bananas and avocados that change quickly, it’s good to purchase multiple fruit in different stages (i.e. purchase 1 green and hard, 1 almost ripe, and 1 with 2-3 days of ripening left.) That way, you will always have a perfectly ripe banana or avocado on hand. A little bit of meal planning is required to make this work, but the strategy of just buying everything ‘green’ for later can backfire as EVERYTHING becomes ‘ready to eat’ at once! The best rule of thumb is to never over buy produce unless you just can’t make it to a store very often.
How to Make Your Tailgate Healthy
Lauren Wright | 09/27/2016
When you plan your football spread this year, try some of these healthier tailgate recipes.
Fall is finally here and you know what that means- football season is here! In my opinion, the best part of watching football games is the food! Classic tailgating food is delicious but unfortunately it’s usually not very healthy. When you plan your football spread this year, try some of these healthier tailgate recipes.
Snacks & Sides
- Light Buffalo Chicken Dip- Buffalo chicken and football are a classic pairing. This buffalo chicken dip uses a combination of low-fat cream cheese and plain Greek yogurt to lighten up this creamy classic. Dig in with carrot slices, celery spear, or whole grain chips.
- Seven Layer Dip- You can never have too many dips at a tailgate! This seven layer dip is packed with avocados for healthy fats, onions and tomatoes for nutrients, and Greek yogurt for half the fat.
- Greek Yogurt Ranch Dip- Have you noticed the trend here? Swap plain Greek yogurt for any sour cream and mayonnaise in creamy recipes for a light version of a dish. This time, use Greek yogurt and spices you probably already have on hand to whip up this ranch dip that’s perfect with veggie slices.
- Honey Mustard Broccoli Slaw- This light, honey mustard sauce will jazz up your standard slaw recipe. Plus broccoli has vitamin C, vitamin A, and calcium!
- Grilled Chicken Sausages- There are many brands of sausages made from chicken at the grocery store these days. Swapping your typical bratwurst for chicken sausage will cut back on the calories and saturated fat. Grill and top them with your favorite condiments and you won’t even tell the difference.
- Macaroni & Cheese with Squash- Butternut squash makes this macaroni and cheese extra creamy without the added fat. Who knew you could fit veggies into a classic like mac and cheese?
- Turkey Chili- Who doesn’t love a good bowl of chili while watching the game? This chili has the great flavor you expect but uses turkey to reduce the saturated fat.
- Black Bean Brownies- Swapping flour for black beans reduces the carbs and boosts the protein content of these brownies.
- Zucchini Applesauce Cookies- Without any added fats or oils, these cookies make it easy to enjoy a healthier dessert.
One final thing to keep in mind: alcohol contains many calories (7 calories per gram!) so it’s easy to down a lot of calories without even realizing it. Choosing a light beer or wine spritzer made with sparkling water can help you enjoy your tailgate experience while watching your diet.
5 Healthy After School Snack Ideas
Lauren Wright | 08/22/2016
These healthy snack ideas are sure to please your child�۪s taste buds while fueling them for homework and play.
We’ve already talked about healthy recipes to pack in your child’s lunch box, so now it’s time to turn our attention to snack time. Kids are bound to be hungry when they get home from school and will need a snack to tide them over until dinner. Because children’s bodies grow so fast, they require a lot of nutrition packed into their daily calories, meaning there isn’t room for much junk food in their diets.
It’s important to offer snacks that provide whole grains, vitamins and minerals, fiber, and protein to fill your kids up after school and to prepare them for any extracurricular activities. It’s also important to try to cut back on the added sugar and sodium that are found in many processed snack foods.
These healthy snack ideas are sure to please your child’s taste buds while fueling them for homework and play.
- Frozen yogurt bites– Chop of your child’s favorite fruit and mix with a low-sugar yogurt. Spoon the mixture into an icecube tray and freeze. These bites are the perfect, popable treat that packs in fruit, protein, and calcium!
- Avocado toast– Avocados are a great source of healthy fats. Toast whole-wheat bread and top with sliced avocado. Sprinkle with salt, a bit of lime juice, and maybe some herbs like oregano or red pepper flakes and snack away!
- Frozen grapes– Another easy, frosty treat; freeze grapes for refreshing snacking.
- Open faced apple sandwiches– Thinly slice apples into rounds and carefully cut out the center. Top the discs with nut butter and a sprinkle of granola, honey, or cinnamon. With both protein and fiber, these sandwiches will satisfy even the hungriest snacker.
- Zucchini pizza bites– Instead of the frozen pizza rolls kids beg for at the grocery store, slice up a zucchini into thin rounds, brush with olive oil, and soften in the oven or toaster oven. Spoon a small amount of tomato sauce on top, sprinkle on low-fat mozzarella cheese, and a piece of turkey pepperoni. Pop them back in the oven until the cheese is melted. They barely take longer than the frozen pizza rolls to make, and kids will hardly notice they’re eating their vegetables!
Packed Lunch Ideas for Your Healthy Learner
Lauren Wright | 08/18/2016
Try these easy and healthy lunch recipes that your child won't want to trade.
Summer has come to an end and it’s already time for kids to head back to school. You’ve probably already bought school supplies and picked out their first-day-of-school outfits, but have you given much thought to their lunches?
Buying lunch from the cafeteria is one option for your child’s lunch this year. The National School Lunch Program Standards regulate lunches served in cafeterias, and they require that fruits, vegetables, and whole grains are served every day; only fat-free and low-fat milk are available; calorie limits are observed according to the child’s age; and sodium, saturated fats, and trans fats are limited to acceptable levels. Therefore, buying lunch in the cafeteria can be a great option for many families.
However, if you choose to pack your child’s lunch, it can be hard to get nutritious lunches packed as everyone rushes out the door in the morning, and it’s easy to get stuck in a rut, packing the same old things every day. No matter what you pack, aim for a mix of whole grains, dairy, protein, and fruits and veggies to keep your child well fueled and ready to learn throughout the day.
Try these easy and healthy lunch recipes that your child won’t want to trade.
- Sandwich skewers– Cut your child’s favorite sandwich ingredients into bite-sized pieces, push them onto a small skewer, and voila- you’ve transformed a boring turkey sandwich into a fun lunch! Mix and match your cheeses, meats, veggies, and breads for versatile lunch options.
- Hardboiled eggs- A peeled, hardboiled egg will transport well in your child’s lunch box and packs protein to keep him or her fueled up throughout the day.
- Peanut butter banana roll up– Smear one side of tortilla or wrap with peanut butter, place a banana to one edge and roll it up in the tortilla. Cut the roll up into bite-sized pieces. You can also try drizzling on some honey or sprinkling on granola, raisins, or cinnamon before rolling everything up.
- Freeze ahead PB&J- Save time in the morning by prepping sandwiches for the week on Sunday night. Make a whole stack of PB&Js on whole-wheat bread, wrap individual sandwiches in aluminum foil, and seal them all in a large plastic bag in the freezer. In the morning, simply grab one frozen sandwich and toss it in a lunchbox. By the time lunch rolls around, the sandwich will be thawed and perfectly soft and fresh. Prevent jelly from seeping into the bread by putting a thin layer of peanut butter on both pieces of bread to seal in the jelly.
- Popcorn trail mix– Store-bought trail mixes can be high in sugar and sodium, but it’s easy to make your own homemade version with a variety of ingredients. Mix lightly salted popcorn, nuts, and dried fruit together for a sweet and salty snack. It’s easy to change up the ingredients every week- switch up the type of nut or dried fruit, sometimes add pretzels or mini chocolate chips, etc. to keep your taste buds interested.
- Homemade Lunchables– Lunchables are always cool in the cafeteria, but they’re expensive and not that healthy. Instead, pack your child’s lunchbox with a stack of whole-wheat crackers, rolls of low-sodium sandwich meat, slices of cheese, and sliced fruits and veggies. Your kids will still have fun stacking their own lunch creations while you save money and keep it healthy. You can even prep several days’ worth of ingredients at the beginning of the week to save time on rushed mornings.
- Don’t forget a drink! Water, low-fat milk, and 100% fruit juice are good options for your child’s lunch. Children aged 4-8 need 2½ cups of dairy per day, and children aged 9-18 need 3 cups, so providing milk at lunch is a great way to fuel your child for the school day. You can send milk from home or you can have your child buy a carton of milk from the cafeteria every day. Juice can also be packed with lunch, but it’s important to choose wisely. The 2015 Dietary Guidelines count 1 cup of 100% fruit juice as 1 cup of fruit. However, many juices contain added sugars with artificial fruit flavorings, which don’t count towards daily fruit servings, so it’s important to carefully select only 100% fruit juice. The Guidelines also recommend that young children only consume 4-6oz of 100% fruit juice per day so it’s important not to over do it with juice.
- Try the recipe together first. Afraid your child won’t eat the things you pack? Try making the recipe first on the weekend or as an after-school snack and see if they like it before packing it in his or her lunch.
- Give your child options. Ask your son or daughter to choose what type of fruit or which sandwich meat they would like in their lunch to give them some control over what they’re eating.
- Don’t get frustrated. If you’re packing healthy options and they return home uneaten at first, don’t give up. Sometimes a child must try a food several times before he or she starts to like it. So even if the cucumber slices come home uneaten, don’t stop packing them. It’s important to keep exposing your child to healthy foods, and eventually, they’ll hopefully come around to eating them.
Show us what you’re packing for lunch! Tag us on Instagram @LetsGoSC or find us on Facebook!
3 tips for a happy, healthy vacation
Ken Immer | 08/10/2016
Maintain your healthy lifestyle, even when on vacation.
While summer is starting to wane, many of us are still getting ready to hit the road for a little vacation time, or maybe even just that last getaway weekend before school starts back. One of the biggest concerns for travelers is often how to maintain a healthy diet and keep feeling fit and well-fueled while on vacation.
A little bit of planning ahead can go a long way. You are already going to be in an unfamiliar place, but if you approach your trip as an opportunity to maintain your healthy lifestyle rather than a challenge, you will surely make the best of it. Here are some great tips to think about before you go:
- Since you’ll be out of your daily routine, make a little game out of looking for opportunities to try a new ‘healthy’ food that you can add to your daily meals when you get back home. If you leave thinking that your vacation will just be one big “temptation” then it probably will be.
- Do a little bit of research before leaving and identify places where you will be able to access some healthy options THAT YOU ALREADY ENJOY. This includes restaurants, grocery stores, or other specialty stores. Ask the resort what options they have available on their menus that are perhaps not listed on their brochure or website. Knowing what you are getting into ahead of time will help reduce the anxiety of having to figure it out while you are there. Don’t spend part of your vacation trying to figure out where the healthy options are. THAT is not fun or relaxing.
- Pack a bag of small apples (the kind you would put into a child’s lunchbox) in your suitcase, and keep one or two with you while you are out from the hotel. Eat one of the apples before a meal or before (over)indulging in a snack opportunity on the run. You’ll eat a little less and get the health benefits of eating several apples during your trip!
Remember, you are going on your trip to enjoy yourself; however, don’t let your vacation become an excuse to let all of your good habits fall to the wayside. We’ve all heard the phrase “everything in moderation”, but how do you actually DO that? Well, if you have been working hard to improve your diet and be more active, a vacation is a good opportunity to maintain the progress you have achieved so far. You don’t have to pressure yourself to eat or exercise exactly the way you would have if you had stayed at home, but just remember the idea of moderation to help you make decisions about what and when to eat.
Being on vacation does mean that you can have a few more calories here and there, but also think about your activity level. Walking is great exercise, and it is a great way to put your workout plan on “moderation” mode as well. Also, spend a little bit of your time reflecting on what is working in your healthy living plan while away from your daily grind, and give yourself a pat on the back for a job well done! Whatever you do, make the decision that you will not stress yourself out over any choices that you make while on vacation.
Pre & Probiotics- Promoting Gut Health
Lauren Wright | 08/08/2016
Ever heard about the gut microbiome wondered why you should care about bacteria?
Ever heard about the gut microbiome in the news or seen yogurt commercials on TV and wondered why you should care about bacteria?
What is your microbiome?
According to a report from the American Society for Microbiology, the human microbiome contains bacteria, viruses, and fungi that live in the body, but most commonly we focus on the body’s bacteria. It’s estimated that the cells of your microbiome outnumber your body’s own cells 3:1. That means that there are about 100 trillion bacteria cells, averaging about 2.5 pounds, in your body! Having that many bacteria in your body may sound scary, but really those bacteria are crucial to our health.1
Many of the bacteria in our bodies are found in the large intestine, where they play important roles in our digestive processes. For example, there are some compounds in foods that our bodies alone cannot naturally break down and digest so we rely on the good bacteria in our guts to break them down for us.
Additionally, the good bacteria in our guts can help keep any bad bacteria we may encounter in check. Normally the good bacteria outnumber potential pathogens in our digestive tract and keep us from getting sick. However, if the good bacteria die off, as is common when taking antibiotics, the good bacteria can no longer fight off the bad, which can cause illness and intestinal discomfort.
Your gut microbiome can even play a role in weight management. One study examined the gut microbiome of female twins who were either lean or obese. The results showed that the lean participants tended to have more diverse gut microbiomes than the obese participants.2 Based on those results, another experiment found that injecting mice with different types of gut bacteria significantly impacted the mice’s ability to maintain and gain weight.3 This science is still very new and researchers are working to determine exactly how bacteria influence our weight, but it is clear that these tiny creatures are vital to our health.
What are pre and probiotics?
Because of all the good things our gut microbiota does for us, it’s important to keep it healthy! One way to do this is by incorporating both pre and probiotics into the diet.
According to the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, prebiotics are nondigestible food ingredients that your gut microbiota love to feed on and therefore encourage the growth of the good bacteria in your digestive tract. Think of prebiotics as the food that feeds your gut’s bacteria; therefore if you want them to be healthy, you need to be sure to feed your gut microbiome the right foods.
Good sources of prebiotics are:
- Whole-wheat foods, such as whole-wheat bread, quinoa, oats, brown rice, etc.
Probiotics, on the other hand, are the good bacteria themselves. Many foods naturally contain these good, live bacteria, so by adding probiotic foods into your diet, you can help increase the colonies of the good guys keeping you healthy.
Good sources of probiotics are:
- Aged cheeses
So the next time you go to the grocery store, don’t just pick out foods for yourself—choose foods to feed your gut microbiome as well
Lauren Wright | 08/01/2016
Blueberries are one of summer's super foods! Time to fill up while they're in season!
Blueberries are one of summer's super foods! Time to fill up while they're in season!
Blueberries are naturally low calorie with just 80 calories per cup. They are also high in vitamin C, which is an antioxidant vitamin, and manganese, which aids the body in processing cholesterol and other nutrients. One serving of blueberries contains 25% of your daily vitamin C!
Blueberries are also a great source of dietary fiber. Fiber helps aid digestion and can help fight heart disease by regulating cholesterol. The fiber in blueberries can also make you feel full more quickly, and it takes longer to digest, meaning it can help curb hunger._
Many human and animal studies have researched the health benefits from blueberries. Findings suggest that blueberries may assist in fighting some cancers2,3, insulin resistance4, and inflammation5 while improving gut health6, eye health7, memory8, and bone health.9 Other studies have shown that anthocyanin, the pigment that gives blueberries their blue color, aids in staving off memory loss and fighting other signs of aging.10
When I think about eating blueberries, I immediately imagine blueberry pancakes. Here are some other ways to eat blueberries:
- On salad - Top off your favorite salad with a handful of blueberries for a sweet pop to your greens. Dress with a vinaigrette.
- Dried in trail mix - Make your own trail mix by combining pretzels, plain cheerios, nuts, and dried blueberries for a sweet and salty snack.
- As a sauce for grilled chicken - Boil blueberries until reduced to a thick sauce that makes the perfect sweet topping for summer grilled chicken. Check out this recipe!
- In yogurt and smoothies - Fresh blueberries are great mixed into low-fat yogurt, and frozen blueberries blend perfectly into smoothies for a breakfast kids will love.
- Pureed and frozen for popsicles - Blend fresh or frozen blueberries with a splash of milk, yogurt, or fruit juice; pour into popsicle molds; and freeze to make frozen treats for hot afternoons.
Home-canning Heirloom Tomatoes
Ciranna Bird | 07/19/2016
Make the most of summer's tomato by preserving them for later use.
Originally published in The Sweet Potato, the sustainable farm and food blog of the Carolinas.
Heirloom tomatoes are one of the many joys of summer. Learning to home-can extra tomatoes will allow you to enjoy your garden bounty all year long. This step-by-step guide will teach you how to do it.
Seek the experts
Home-canning expertise used to be handed down through generations. For example, my dad and uncles learned how to hunt deer with compound bows, shoot wild ducks and fish for rainbow trout in the Colorado River from my grandpa. My grandmother taught my Aunt Pat how to home-can trout, as well as the vegetables and fruit they grew in their yard. Unfortunately, I lost contact with my dad and his side of the family for fourteen years, after my parents’ divorced. Since I didn’t grow up with this culture of food self-sufficiency or even have the desire to learn how to be a home-canner at that time, I like many adults my age am looking for ways to learn these skills. Where can we start?
Based on my excellent experience attending a class at the Chatham County North Carolina Cooperative Extension service, I would recommend your local Cooperative Extension Service county center. Visit https://www.ces.ncsu.edu/local-county-center/ if you live in North Carolina and http://www.clemson.edu/extension/county/index.html if you live in South Carolina to search for the office nearest your home. The Cooperative Extension Service offers free testing of your pressure canner gauges as well as affordable and informative courses.
Research the process
In the “Safely Preserving at Home” course, family and consumer sciences extension agent, Phyllis Smith, shared the most up-to-date, research based information on how to safely home-can vegetables and fruits. The participants of the workshop were a mix of newbies like myself and experienced home-canners. We walked away with copies of the 37thedition of Ball’s Blue Book Guide to preserving, handouts describing the parts of a typical pressure canner, frequently asked questions, and electronic resources that have the most current instructions and tested canning recipes. The interactions and questions during the class revealed that there was new information to learn even for those with prior years of hands-on experience.
New scientific research, newer models of canners, and a better understanding of the ways to reduce foodborne illness, all have resulted in improved and safer recipes and methods over the years. To benefit from all the progress made, it is important to seek out the most up to date guidance from a trusted source. I emphasize the word trusted because I recently found a canning book for home-canners that was published in 2011, which prided itself on skipping vital safety steps.
For my piece of mind, I encourage the readers of this article to use the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Complete Guide to Home Canning. Scientists and researchers at the USDA and Cooperative Extension Service universities, including Clemson University and North Carolina State University, have spent years developing the perfect the process of preserving tomatoes in glass jars.
They have identified the bacteria, yeasts, and mold that cause spoilage in tomatoes and identified the exact temperature and amount of time needed for processing and cooling to destroy them. In their research laboratories, scientists use the same size canners and same size glass jars that are available to the public.
These men and women from the USDA and Cooperative Extension services have tested thousands of variables (are the tomatoes packed into the jar raw or hot? Are there pieces of tomato in the jar or is it just the tomato juice? Are the tomatoes canned in a pint-sized jar or a quart-sized jar? Are you using a boiling-water canner or a pressure canner? Etc.) to identify the ideal conditions for home-canning our food safely..
Follow the recipe
Home-canning recipes must be followed exactly as written. Canning food is different than preparing a meal that you will eat within a few days. When you add the wrong ingredients or try out a new recipe for a meal you risk the chance that the food might not taste as good as you hoped it would.
In the home-canning world, if you substitute ingredients, attempt to double or halve the recipe, fail to reach the target temperature for the exact time the stakes are higher. The jars may not seal properly which could lead to food spoilage and waste. Worse, if the bacterial spores that produce botulinum toxin aren’t destroyed, eating the canned food which may look and smell perfectly normal may lead to paralysis and death.
At this point you might be saying “Wait a minute! My Aunt Pat (you can fill in the blank here) has been canning almost her whole life. She hasn’t ever used a recipe and she’s perfectly fine. Nobody has gotten sick from eating the canned food she prepares.” I don’t have a good response to this reasoning. I’m grateful that my Aunt Pat who still home-cans is alive and well in Colorado. I also feel passionate about sharing information with the readers of this article about the value of following up to date, trustworthy recipes exactly as they are written.
A recipe for making crushed tomatoes with no added liquid
To keep this recipe simple and provide the exact processing time, I have chosen the following options: The processing time listed below is specific for the use of a boiling-water canner. The processing pressure and time are different if you are using a pressure-canner. The processing time below is specific for the use of pint-sized jars with a boiling-water canner. The processing time for boiling-water canners is longer if you use quart-sized jars. A pint is equal to 2 cups; a quart is equal to 4 cups of food. The processing time below is specific for the use of pint-sized jars with a boiling-water canner in places where the elevation level is less than 1,000 feet above sea level. The processing time for boiling-water canners is longer if you live in mountainous regions. To find out the elevation level of your county view the North Carolina Topographic Map athttp://geology.com/topographic-physical-map/north-carolina.shtml or the South Carolina Topographic Map at http://geology.com/state-map/south-carolina.shtml.
- Harvest or buy 14 pounds of organic tomatoes from your local farmer:
Size: medium to large
Color: Any color (yellow, purple, pink, green, orange, striped, red, etc.)
Shape: Any shape (Round, funny-looking, pumpkin shaped, pointy, etc.)
Condition: Firm tomatoes picked from living tomato vines. It is tempting to think that it is okay to use soft over-ripe tomatoes since they are going to be softened by the canning process anyway. However over-ripe tomatoes are soft because of the enzymes, bacteria, yeast, and mold that are breaking them down. Choose plump, firm and good-smelling tomatoes to ensure the best taste and safest product.
- Gather your instructions, equipment and ingredients
Visit your local Extension Service to get a hard copy or download the most recent version of the following USDA Home-Canning guidance material at http://nchfp.uga.edu/publications/publications_usda.html. Download Guide 1 – Principles of Home Canning and Guide 3 – Selecting, Preparing and Canning Tomatoes and Tomato Products
- Lemon juice (9 tablespoons) or citric acid (2 and ¼ teaspoons)
- A boiling water canner (16 quarts or larger)
- Nine mason jars – pint-sized, heat-tempered glass
- A canning rack to hold the glass jars
- Two-piece vacuum caps that fit the mason jars (1) unused metal lids with the sealing compound on the outer edge and (2) metal screw bands
- Large cooking pots
- Cutting board and knife
- Wooden mallet or spoon
- Clean dish clothes and paper towels
- Jar lifter
- Canning funnel
- Plastic spatula or bubble remover
- Headspace tool or measuring tape
- A magnetic wand to remove and attach lids
- Prepare the jars, lids, and canner
Follow the instructions in Guide 1, pages 14 and 15.
- Prepare the crushed tomatoes
Follow the instructions in Guide 3, page 7.
- Fill one hot jar at a time:
a) Add 1 tablespoon of lemon juice or ¼ teaspoon of citric acid to the bottom of the hot pint-sized jar according to Guide 3 page 5.
b) Fill the hot jar with the hot tomatoes and leave exactly ½ inch of unfilled space in the jar between the food or liquid and the rim of the jar (Guide 3 page 7). This space is called the headspace and allows the food to expand and form a vacuum seal.
c) Remove air bubbles, food debris from the rim of jar, and add the lids. To see pictures and more detailed descriptions of how to do these steps refer to Guide 1 page 15-16.
d) Place the filled, sealed jar onto the canning rack that is elevated above the simmering 180 Fahrenheit degree water in the boiling-water canner.\
e) Repeat steps a – d until all the jars have been filled.
- Process the pint-sized jars with a boiling-water canner at an elevation of 1,000 feet or below sea level:
a) Lower the canning rack into the boiling-water canner which is already filled halfway with simmering water.
b) Follow the steps on Guide 1 page 18 to ensure a continuous time of 35 minutes of a rolling boil.
c) Follow the steps on Guide 1 page 18 to remove jars from the boiling-water canner.
- Cool the jars for 12-24 hours.
Follow the instructions in Guide 1 page 25.
- Check the jar seals.
Follow the instructions in Guide 1 pages 25-26.
Enjoy your delicious, local, organic canned tomatoes
Pop open a jar of your tomatoes, add your own seasonings, and use them to make lasagna, pizza sauces, stir-fry, stews and anything else you can think of. I’ll leave you with this quote from the NC Tomato Man, Craig LeHoullier: “I think that it is fair to say that we use our canned tomatoes in any cooked recipe – risotto, soups, stews – anything the commercial canned tomatoes goes into is improved if using our own home canned tomatoes.”
- Harvest or buy 14 pounds of organic tomatoes from your local farmer: